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One of my favorite ways to photograph a seascape is to use Bulb Mode and neutral density filters to work with shutter speeds between two and six minutes long.
This is how it works. I made the photo below with a shutter speed of 340 seconds. The long exposure blurred the water until it was smooth.
Above: Shutter speed 340 seconds
If you use a shutter speed of 30 seconds, in most cases it isn’t long enough to achieve this effect. Compare the texture of the sea in the photo below, made with a shutter speed of 30 seconds, to the one above. There’s a big difference, and it’s all down to shutter speed.
Above: Shutter speed 30 seconds
If you want texture, then use a shutter speed of 30 seconds or shorter. But if you want the silky effect of the first photo, then unless the sea is still you need to use a shutter speed of at least one minute.
This style of landscape photography is also known as long exposure photography.
Learn more: What Is Long Exposure Photography?
What is Bulb Mode?
The longest shutter speed available on most cameras is 30 seconds. Bulb Mode gives you the option to use shutter speeds longer than this.
In Bulb Mode the camera opens the shutter when you press the shutter button, then closes the shutter when you release the button. The length of time you hold the button down is the shutter speed.
Most photographers use a cable release to avoid problems with camera shake caused by touching the camera (and also because it’s easier than holding the shutter button down). Just about every cable release has a lock so you don’t have to hold the shutter button down. Simple press the button on the cable release, lock it into position, then unlock and release when the exposure is done.
On some cameras Bulb Mode is represented by a B on the Mode Dial. On others, it’s activated via the shutter speed menu (it’s usually next to the 30 seconds setting).
The camera keeps count of how many seconds have elapsed. The figure is usually displayed somewhere on the camera. On some models this is hard to see in the near dark, so photographers use watches or smartphone apps to time their exposures instead.
Above: Shutter speed 125 seconds
Use a tripod in Bulb Mode
For successful long exposure photography you need a good quality aluminum or carbon fibre tripod and a ball and socket head. I use a MeFoto RoadTrip Tripod that provides good support for my Fujifilm X-T2 camera (and yes, I still use the X-T2, I have no need to upgrade to the latest Fujifilm camera). If you have a heavier camera you’ll need something sturdier. An L bracket can also help keep your camera steady during long exposures.
It’s a good idea not to extend the centre column when you’re shooting long exposures, as it makes the camera less stable. Bear this in mind if you need to buy a tripod and make sure you buy one that’s tall enough to use without the column extended.
It’s best to work in still conditions so that the wind doesn’t disturb the camera. If there’s a breeze you can stand between the wind and the camera to minimize disturbance.
Neutral density filters and Bulb Mode
The other accessory you need for long exposure photography is a neutral density (ND) filter. Even at ISO 100 and f16 (avoid f22 because diffraction makes the image softer) the light needs to be very low to obtain shutter speeds of one minute or longer. This restricts you to shooting in the late evening or early morning before sunrise.
Neutral density filters block light reaching the camera’s sensor so you can use longer shutter speeds. They also give you the option of working at f8 or f11 and still getting exposures of a minute or longer. F8 and f11 are good apertures to use, as long as they give you enough depth of field for the scene you’re photographing, as they give the sharpest results on most lenses.
The amount of light neutral density filters block is measured in stops. You can buy filters that block anything from two to sixteen stops of light. A set of three filters (for example 3, 6 and 10 stop filters) is useful as you can use the one most appropriate for the ambient light levels, and combine them if you need to.
Above: Shutter speed 340 seconds
Neutral density filters and camera viewfinders
As neutral density filters block light they also make the viewfinder go darker. If you’re working in low light to start with this means that you can’t see enough of the scene in the viewfinder to compose the photo well.
Mirrorless cameras (at least the ones with good quality electronic viewfinders) are usually better than digital SLRs in this respect because the camera amplifies the feed to brighten the viewfinder display.
One way get around this problem is to compose the photo, then attach the neutral density filter afterwards.
An alternative method is to use Live View (most digital cameras have it now). The Live View feed, just like an electronic viewfinder, brightens the image to compensate for the neutral density filter.
This works until ambient light levels drop to the point where the camera can no longer adequately brighten the image. In this case you’re back to the technique of removing the filter to compose the photo.
Above: Shutter speed 42 seconds
Calculating exposure in Bulb Mode
In low light, or with a neutral density filter fitted, an easy way to calculate exposure is to raise the ISO to a high setting like 6400 or 12800, select Aperture Priority, set the aperture you want to use and then take a photo. Check the histogram and adjust settings if required. You can then calculate the exposure required at a low ISO.
For example: If the optimum exposure is obtained with a shutter speed of 2 seconds at f11 and ISO 6400, then reducing the ISO to 100 (a reduction of six stops) means that you’ll need a shutter speed of 128 seconds.
Remember that if you’re shooting in the evening, you need to adjust the exposure as you go along to compensate for the drop in light. You might calculate the required exposure as two minutes, but find in reality you need three or four minutes as it’s getting darker during the exposure. Instinct and experience are the best guides as to when you need to keep the shutter open longer than you initially thought to get a good exposure.
There are smartphone apps that help you make these exposure calculations. One of my favorites is PhotoPills (iOS and Android), another is LE Calculator (iOS).
This is a screenshot of the exposure calculator in PhotoPills.
Use the Raw format
The best way to shoot long exposures is to use the Raw format. This allows you to expose to the right and obtain maximum detail in both highlights and shadows. Check the article linked below if you’re not sure what exposing to the right means.
Long exposure noise reduction
Most digital cameras have a long exposure noise reduction option somewhere in the menu system. It depends on which camera you have, but usually you don’t need to activate it until your exposures are at least seven or eight minutes long.
If you’re making long exposure landscape photos, then your exposures are unlikely to be longer than five or six minutes. Longer exposures than this are more common in astrophotography. If you shoot photos of landscapes at night using these ultra long shutter speeds then using long exposure noise reduction is essential.
The main disadvantage of using long exposure noise reduction is that the camera takes two consecutive exposures. The first is the photo, the second is a what’s called a dark frame exposure – a photo taken with the shutter closed so that the only thing recorded in the frame is fixed pattern noise. The camera then subtracts the noise generated in the second image from the first image to eliminate noise caused by the long exposure.
As the second exposure is the same length as the first it doubles the time required to take a photo. You lose valuable time that would be better spend creating images while the light is beautiful.
Above: Shutter speeds 58 seconds (left) and 90 seconds (right)
My ebook Mastering Exposure gives you the knowledge you need to get the correct exposure every time you take a photo. Reading this ebook helps you master your camera’s exposure modes and metering tools, including Exposure Compensation. You’ll learn why your camera gets exposure wrong, and how to put it right when it does. Click here for the details.
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